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This lab focuses on the preliminary scanning which is a critical skill for all cybersecurity professionals including penetration testers and network administrators. For penetration testers this is the second step in the five stages of pen testing. This step comes after Reconnaissance which is data gathering from the target. This lab uses one of the most powerful, free scanning tools on the market NMAP. NMAP is also known as network mapper. Using NMAP the student will identify the systems on a network of responsibility. Students will also learn to identify other devices on the laboratory network, to include computers and network infrastructure devices, such as routers. There is a deep course on NMAP taught by Rob Thurston, which can be utilized to supplement the lab materials. Network administrators also use Nmap to identify what devices are on their systems, discovering the availability of hosts, and NMAP finding open ports and detecting security risks.
NMAP is an extremely effective and flexible tool. It's mostly used as a port-scan tool and it gathers information and sends raw packets to system ports. NMAP then listens for responses and determines whether ports are open, closed or filtered in some way. for example, a firewall. Other terms used for port scanning include port discovery or enumeration.