So now that we're planning out and that we're implementing our network, lets take a look at some of the different cable considerations that we need to specifically look at. So when we're setting our cable, we need to make sure that we're laying our cable that we don't exceed our cable link maximums.
Now, in another module, we're actually gonna talk about different cables, their specifications, the way that they are crimped at the end and their cable, their cable layouts and their pronounce and their actual maximum lengths. But typically speaking, one of the most the most common cable that we're gonna be using in our infrastructure network environment
is going to be a some sort of Ethernet cable, possibly a cat five Ethernet cable,
now an Ethernet cable also known as that standard Internet cable with an R J 45 Plug on the end is we don't want to exceed 100 meters with a single cable lengths.
If we're going to need to go farther than 100 meters, we need tohave an additional device. We need to have something like a switch or a hub or repeater or some sort of device that is going to redo that signal and push it along the line.
So we need to make sure that we're not exceeding our maximum cable links now our fiber optic cables, our co actor or different co axel cables. Those also have their own cable lengths, but again we will talk specifically to different cable lengths in our different module reaction. We're actually talking about cabling hardware
some more of our network cable requirements other than just not exceeding our 100 meters without a device. We also want to make sure that we're increasing efficiency and redundant redundancy. So when we said we're increasing, inefficiency and redundancy were doing things that help us
with allowing network, try traffic to flow more efficiently and to prevent it from having to have our allowing have more redundancy. So we have switches that connect to multiple switches that both go to the same place to allow different network paths. If one goes down,
we have worm or increasing efficiency.
We're making sure that our cable links aren't longer than they need to be, that they're nice and they're nice and neat or making sure that we have our different devices connected to switch is that we use and that we manage so that we have. We can have different V land set up
so that we can use those V lands and we can help
mitigate certain traffic. We don't have really big broadcast domains we make our broadcast domains will make our broadcast domain smaller. We will make sure that we help mitigate collision domains. We don't install things like hubs as much as we do switches, because we would rather have a switch there than a hub. So we want to make sure that we're installing our cabling where
thinking about the efficiency of our network layout
as well as allowing for redundancy in case one link goes out. Think if one cable got cut. What is this? The only way for this device to connect to our network? If it's a single workstation cable to a switch, well, that may be acceptable. But if we have a, we have a single A switch with only a single cable to another switch
and doesn't have any other path to go out, too, and that switch becomes a single point of failure for
ah 100 users. Then we need to be very, very careful how we're setting up that traffic flow because we want to eliminate and we want to reduce those number of single point of failure.
Then we have. We want to a decrease bottlenecks. Now bottlenecks are essentially places where we have a lot of band with a lot of traffic converging at once, and it's essentially slows down our traffic dramatically. So say we have
multiple different sub nets, and these multiple different sub nets all need to talk out to the Internet. So
we have one sub net with 100 users on it, another sub net with 50 users on it and 1/3 sub net with another 100 users on it. And all of these three sub nets all connect to
one individual router and that one individual router manages or they all connect to their own switches, and those individual switches connect toe one single router. Well, we might. We're going to notice a bottleneck there because if
we need to communicate just with, say, a device on another sub net, we're all gonna have to go through that router, and that router is going to be managing traffic, not just tow other sub nets, but it's going to also be managing traffic out to the Internet. Maybe a better situation would be. Instead of setting up our different sub nets
we set up, we set up a
V lands, or we set up a couple different V lands and these different billions. We've set up our switches to allow our switches to also talk to each other over villains. So maybe not all of our traffic has to be has to be routed through a router if our switches are able to manage the lands
and they're more multi layer switches so they can also route traffic.
So we have these multi layer switches that can route traffic between multiple V lands, and they're able to send this. They're able to send data to different devices on different switches that are in the same V land that we may be able to spread out some of that traffic and help prevent some of that that bottle necking.
So we want to make sure that before we ever lay any cable or about we buy any devices,
we draw a couple different network diagrams, and we identify any place where we have a lot of network traffic converging and then talk about how we may be able to reduce some of that convergence of traffic and how we may be able to spread out, spread the load a little bit and decrease decrease the chance of bottlenecks
s o. We talked about redundancy, but when we have redundancy, we need to remember STP. We need to remember spanning tree protocol. Now remember, spanning tree protocol is what we need when we have multiple switches that form loops and when those multiple switches or multiple bridges form loops.
Those loops, if there's a broadcast message sent out between them,
can cause broadcast storms can effectively shut down our network. So we need to make sure that we have spanning tree protocols set up properly that our devices are functioning properly with spanning tree protocol. So we don't have those broadcasts loops that shut down our network that the spanning tree polluted protocol is able to perform blocking on certain links
in order to prevent those broadcasts packets from propagating
continuously forever around our network.
Then we have plenty of space equals Plenty of cable are plenty of space sickles, planum, cable now planum space refers to spaces and our environment where where we have
air traveling, that is not a really a habitable space. So planum spaces would be under the floor in the ceiling, in the walls, essentially places that we wouldn't really see.
Closets don't necessarily Countess Planum cable are planum spaces, but as soon as that cable enters into the ceiling, that ceiling is considered a planum space. So we need to make sure that in planum spaces were using planum cables. So what Airplane, Um, cables. Well,
standard cables that we use when we're connecting computers to a network we're connecting a workstation to a wall Jack
are made out of PVC, but when PBC burns, it releases toxic fumes.
So instead of using those those cables that can release toxic fumes in some of our airspace is we use thes planum cables because he's planning cables are made out of a material that a does not release toxic fumes when burned, and B is a little bit fire resistant.
So we put these in our walls and put them in our ceilings. We put them under the floors,
so if there ever is a fire that starts, maybe there's an electrical fire that starts in our ceiling. Then we are gonna have cable that's burning and then spreading toxic fumes around all over the place because it's made out of PVC and not plenty. There are a lot of different. There are depending on where you live. There may be different fire regulations that actually
make that actually make this a law where you live,
that states that you have to have. If you're setting up a new building, then you'll have ah, Fire Inspector come out and they'll inspect the cabling in your ceiling. They made papa tile and check your cables and typically are planning cables will actually have written on them. They'll have stamped on them from the manufacturer if they're planning cables,
so they are a bit more expensive.
We aren't gonna be using them for everywhere in our network. We're not gonna be using them to connect our workstations for the wall. But we do need to use them in our plan, um, spaces such as our walls and our ceilings.
And then we have to avoid electromagnetic interference. Am I and avoid cable bins? Electromagnetic interference is interference that's brought on by electromagnetic waves interacting with our cables. Essentially, what electromagnetic interference does is it's taking our cable,
and it's our cables acting like an antenna.
And it's picking up that that interference from other electricity, another electromagnetic waves that are in our environment now electromagnetic interference is everywhere. It's coming from the electronics that are on my microphone. It's coming from the electronics in the lights that we have
that are shining on our set.
electromagnetic interference can have situations where it's stronger than in others. For example, if we're running cables through the ceiling, we want to avoid running cables over our different light sources. So we don't want to run cables directly over fluorescent lighting because there's gonna be Maur electromagnetic interference coming from those
So we need to make sure we know where those are, and we're just running them over. The tiles were just running our cables over the tiles. We also want to avoid putting our cables in areas where there might be a lot of electromagnetic interference. So evaluate your own environment, determine where you have a lot of electric or a lot of electromagnetic type
equipment is in place, such as microwaves or
other electrical equipment and tryto try to mitigate getting your Kate having your cables be exposed to it. A cz much.
And then we have cable Ben's now cable bins there exactly what they sound like.
We don't want to take our cable and just bend it at a straight 90 degree angle and then say, Oh, yeah, that'll work. Cable bins are going. They can short out our cables. They can prevent data from traveling through it correctly and corrupt packets. So we need to make sure that if we do need to bend the cable, we want to make sure that it's like a even gentle
bend in the cable, not a
completely straight 90 degrees, especially if we're using any sort of fiber optic cables. Fiber optic cables actually have glass or plastic rods inside that if we've been the cable too much, it's just gonna break the rod, and that cable's completely bad. Now we can't use it. We would have to cut it at that point and spend and people who have specialized tools,
uh, to make a new termination or make a new in point for that cable would have to would have to do that on the cabling,
so we have to keep aware of Cable Benz.
Then we have cable management now. Cable management is easier, easier said than done. And it's easier done when we're first setting up our network than ignored at first and then having to redo it over several years. Cable management is a fancy term for making sure everything's in making sure everything's nice and neat. You see you see
You may have already seen pictures of things like network closets that that Google has that are extremely well organized. Their cables are cut to exactly the precise length there need there nicely managed, and they're in bundles that go to where they need to go. They aren't lying all over the place. They aren't. They aren't
tangled up and they aren't and they're even color coded and they aren't just all the same color.
So we want to make sure that we're performing cable management, not just for sanity sake, but to make it a bit easier. Weren't redoing network traffic. If we walk into our network closet and all of our cables are spread out everywhere and they're tangled up and we have someone who says,
Oh, I think I think there's a problem with my network connection and you think you've traced it back down to a sink
the network closet. And now you need to determine where their cables coming in to that network closet. Well, if it's a mess than good luck, you may have to use specialized tools. You may have to use your cable tools in order to actually trace that cable, but if you have your cable's already nice and meet, you have the managed well, you have them labeled
or maybe even color coded. Then you'll be ableto very easily find.
Find the end point for that cable, and it's going to save you a lot of time. It's gonna save you a lot of sanity. So cable management is best to do right when your first setting up your network
and then we have cable testing tools. When we're setting up our network, we don't want to just crimp a cable, run it through and then just assume that it works and then keep moving on, especially for designing and network, and we're laying cables before they're finishing the building. If we're setting up cables after we've crypt the cable, we want to check it and make sure the cable's good.
Then we want to run the cable and then make sure that at both ends
we test the cable and the cable's good. We if we are setting up cables and multiple cabling, cables and cabling in an environment, we want to make sure that we're using the same cabling standards. We have our A and R B standard, which we'll talk about it later module with those mean exactly.
But essentially they were photo, too.
The color patterns of our cables versus how we set them out with our with our in connectors. Now, if we're crimping our own cables is very important that we want to try to keep that consistent throughout our environment, just in case if we come back later and need to make some modifications, we know right away that Oh, this is a standard. I could just cut this off and then redo the cabling.
So make sure that we're using all of our cable testing tools
in our environment that we're making sure that our cables are good and we don't just say OK, one's gonna make 50 cables. I'll run them all, and I'll just assume that they're good. We gotta make sure, because even if we've been doing this for years and even if this isn't our first time running cable or setting up a network, anything can happen. Punch down tool may not punch down, eh?
And then when we try to plug into our network that that backbone line isn't working properly and we'll have to re run the whole thing.