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As a continuation of learning about Symmetric Encryption, this lesson explores the other type of cipher: Stream Ciphers. We'll go much deeper into what happens during XOR (which stands for exclusive Or), what transposition and substitution is, and whether or not multiple transposition and substitution is preferred. You'll also observe a rich demonstration of how XOR provides encryption, learn what RC4 is and what takes place at the encryption and decryption level. As a Penetration Tester, you must understand the key functions of each of these events, what their impact is on each other and how to determine when to use one over another in Symmetric Encryption.