when we're talking about our backbone systems were talking about our intercon in continental wires that go
are there on the ocean floor and allow us to transmit Internet connectivity between North America and Europe or between Europe and Australia, these intercontinental wires or the wires that are your Internet service provider uses. Or sometimes now, even with certain
companies providing Internet, such as
we're now moving into the realm of cables
called fiber optic cables. Now, fiber optic cables are a bit different than R. J 45 R. J 11 and even co axel cables that we'll talk about it in a little bit. Whereas most of our cables that were used to transmit information using electrical signals are fiber cables, transmit information using light.
Noticed that word up
optical your eyes. It's something that you can see you look at. Electrical signals aren't really. They're not in our light spectrum, but we with the word optical sort of. It's just our little hint. Fiber optics are going to transmit with light signals what eyes five or five or optic cables made of that allow it to do that
well. Our fiber optic cables are made of a couple different steps.
part of our fiber optic cable is going to be called our core. It's a single glass or plastic strand, which actually has the light traveling through it. Surrounding this core, we actually have something that's called a cladding. Now this cladding is a tube that encases the core that helps to reflect
traveling down through the core back into the core so that it can keep on going. It can keep on moving, so we have our core, and then around it we will have our cladding. Then we move on to our next labour layer up, which is our inner insulation. This is this essentially just covers our core. It's sort of actions like a humidity. Control
helps to keep it a little bit more flexible on a little bit more safe,
and it helps prevent the cladding in the core from breaking or being too exposed. And this will be our inner insulation. Just extend this cable out a little bit farther, and then finally we have our outer insulation, the outer rubber jacket that seals our cable.
It's what we see when we look at our fiber optic cable. That outside layer
is going to be our outer insulation, holding everything whole of our parts in together. When we send our light signal through from one into the other end, it's going to just send right through our core here. It's going to use that inner cladding if it bounces to help keep our light signal in side of our core.
Now we have an example of a fiber optic cable here,
two examples of fiber optic cables here you noticed that they're not very tight there, loosely wrapped up. This is because fire optic cables, as we said, have glass slash plastic course. They're not metal wires inside their cores that can break. And when we break these cables,
if you break the cladding or you break the cladding and you break the core inside of the cable,
it's not gonna work. You're not gonna transmit that information that's going to get there, and it's not gonna be able to go. It's going to get to your break, and you're not going to be able to go any farther. That's why we typically don't use. Or that's one of the reasons why we typically don't use fiber optic connections just in our everyday usage to our computers, because there are a lot more fragile.
Then say our standard R J 45 connections are standard Ethernet
But we do use these on our backbone systems. We can use them and say Large Enterprise Data Center or intercontinental E R. Intercontinental cables have bundles of fiber optic cables that are encased in a protective coatings to keep them
safe from undersea animals.
Sometimes shark will actually sharks will actually attack cables, so they have to be encased very well to keep them protected. So these But we have these smaller versions and they're just single fiber optic cable strands that we have wrapped up here.
Fiber optic cables have a couple different types of connectors which will go over. We have S, C,
L, C, S T and F C connectors. RSC connector is going to stand for our standard connector. It's just a standard square fiber optic connector. So when you think of SC standard connector, think of square. We have one of our C connectors here. As you'll see, they actually have caps
on the ends that help
protect for actual connectors from damage because even with the ends on the connectors become damaged, it becomes a very time consuming in a very lengthy process in order to fix them and over to replace them. Then we have an L C connector, which stands for local connector. This is also going to be a
R. S. C connector. So it's gonna be similar to the square connector. We have S T connector, which stands for straight tip connector. And of course, that's going to be
a straight tip connector like we have here again with their own means of
coatings on the tips. And then we have F C connector, which stands for fibre channel connector, and this is gonna have, like, a round connector on the end. So all of these different connectors are SC are standard connector, local connector, straight tip and fibre channel.
They're all going to be used with our fiber optic cables, So we want to be able to recognize those
and know that are different. Fiber optic cables don't always look exactly the same, and we can recognize that when we do see them, we do recognize that
even though even though they're different, both of these air. Still, fiber optic cables in both of them transmit using our light signals through our our cores and our cladding and our installations.