Time
31 hours 29 minutes
Difficulty
Beginner
CEU/CPE
30

Video Description

IPV4 vs IPV6 This lesson discusses the differences between IPV4 and IPV6 relative to format. AN IPV4 is a 32-bit address scheme, meaning it has 32 binary bits of data which are divided into four octets (sets of 8). This provides us with 4 billion addresses which should be enough, in theory. However, now we are running out with so many devices that connect to the Internet. That's where IPV6 comes in, which provides us with a 128-bit address which provides trillions of addresses. Participants also learn about hexadecimals to determine binary values for IPV6 addresses.

Video Transcription

00:04
We've mentioned I p v six a few times, and we've mentioned how our current version of I P addressing is I pee before. Well, what is the difference between our I p v foreign i p v six and what's the format of our I P V four versus our I P V six? Well, r I P D four is a 32 bit address scheme, meaning we have 32
00:24
binary bits of data 32 ones or zeroes of data.
00:28
These 32 bits of data are divided into four octet. It's so we are dividing our 32 bits into four sets of eight.
00:37
Now, this leaves us with four billion addresses. All right, P addresses typically look like 1 92.1 68.1 dot whatever. And then we have I P addresses, which looks similar to one
00:53
which looks him or 211
00:58
000000 dot
01:03
10101
01:08
zero
01:11
0.1 dot 00000
01:19
01
01:22
Extras! There, there, There we go.
01:25
So that's what our I P v four dresses look like in binary, and this provides us with four billion addresses now at the invention of I. P. Before this seem like
01:36
more than enough dress addresses that we would ever need.
01:38
But
01:40
fast forward to the year 2014 and everyone has phones. Everyone has tablets. Everyone has computers. Everyone has. Well, not everyone, but some people have refrigerators that connect to the Internet.
01:52
Give it a couple of years. Everybody have refrigerator that connects to the Internet. It'll be so old fashioned. But
01:57
all of these devices connect to the Internet. All of these devices need I P addresses and we're running out.
02:04
And simply put,
02:06
we need some. We need something that provides us with more. We need something with more extensive bility. We need something with more numbers. We need something with Maur binary addresses. We can only get so many addresses out of a 32 bit address,
02:19
So I P V six provides us with
02:22
a 128 bit address. 101 128 bit address is an address that it doesn't have, for it doesn't have four sets of eight via Neri. Digits
02:35
are 128 bit addresses provide us with
02:38
128
02:39
binary digits, which
02:44
I'm sorry, but I'm not gonna write out because that was a long time. But 128 binary digits provide us with
02:51
340 trillion trillion trillion addresses.
02:54
That's a lot more than four billion.
02:58
So it's going to provide us with addresses for years to come for the foreseeable future. And but there's a little bit of a difference when it comes to our format.
03:07
R I P Before is a four octet dotted decimal 32 bit address. Our I P V six is a is in hexi decimal format, so we don't have periods that separate our sections. And it's Hexi Decimal. Well, Hexi Decimal,
03:24
which means our characters convey be anywhere from zero through F.
03:30
Well, how can we have letters? How do we have zero through F?
03:32
Well,
03:34
the trick is,
03:36
every single one of our characters is actually composed of four binary digits.
03:42
It's amazing.
03:44
So let's take a look at, um, let's look at F e 01 and see how that can be composed into buying hearing. So let's take a look at that over on our other side.
03:55
So f e 01
04:00
Remember, this is just one section of our I P V six address F e
04:05
01
04:09
We break this down into binary. This is going to be
04:12
four groups of four binary digits.
04:15
So
04:16
when we're looking at are binary digits. Four hour, when we're looking at are binary digits.
04:24
Well, go ahead and write out a chart again.
04:27
Binary digits work in incremental powers of two.
04:32
So if we have four digits,
04:34
say one on on on on,
04:39
which will actually right in black, we have on
04:44
on
04:46
on on and then these will be our binary places. So these were the binary digits which represent hard Are each individual character here.
04:56
So
04:58
each of these digits have about our each are places, have a value, have a ones value
05:02
two
05:04
for
05:05
and eight.
05:08
Now you say, Well, why can't we just use numbers if we only have up to eight in our value? Well, when we add these up, for example, in
05:15
if we have every single
05:18
binary digit activated in our set of 41111 will be eight plus four plus two plus one
05:30
that's gonna give us 15.
05:33
We can't put 15
05:35
in our Hexi decimal format because that may cause confusion. Is this a one in a five, or is this a 15 or or what
05:47
is the number? If the number before it is a one? Is it in 11? Is it a 15 or is it a 115? So we have to limit ourselves
05:57
20 through nine for our numbers. But luckily, we also have letters.
06:02
So
06:03
our chart here,
06:06
we'll make one right here
06:10
if we have a value. If we have a binary value which comes out to one
06:15
so a binary value of one then the heck semester the hex, a decimal character that we will place will be
06:25
well, if sorry, we'll start one down If we have a binary value which comes out to zero r hexi decimal that we place, it will be zero
06:32
if a binary value comes out, the one Hexi decimal value. The head of the decimal character will be one.
06:40
Then on to 23456789
06:46
These all correspond directly to their corresponding numbers,
06:53
binary value and red
06:55
corresponding to the Hexi Decimal,
06:58
the Hexi decimal output in green. We may run out, though
07:01
we ran out of numbers at nine. So if we have a binary value of 10 binary value of 10 is a hexi decimal value
07:11
of a
07:12
binary value of 11 12 13 14 15 will also need
07:18
Hexi decimal value of 11 is B 12 is C 13 is D, 14 is E and 15 is F.
07:29
That's why
07:30
our Hexi decimal characters. That's why in our I P V six, we can have characters that are anywhere from zero toe f f being the highest hexi decimal value.
07:44
So let's go back to our chunk of buying ery that we pull our chunk of hats and decimal that we pulled from our I P V six. Here
07:51
we have our I P V six value of F E 01
07:57
so f e 01
08:01
f is going to be a binary of
08:05
1111
08:07
So by an area of 1111
08:11
e is going to be one less
08:16
so he will be 14
08:20
and will be a binary value of
08:22
11100 is going to be a binary value of 0000
08:31
and then lastly, one is going to be a binary value of 0001
08:37
so we can see how,
08:39
even with our i p B six address being long in hex decimal four at
08:46
we are exponentially making this address even larger when we go into buying ery format,
08:54
each of our hex a vessel set segments of four characters equals 16 binary digits.
09:01
Our entire
09:01
our entire address, our entire I p v six address is 32 Hexi decimal characters long
09:09
32 Hexi decimal characters times four diet binary digits per hexi decimal character
09:16
results in our 128 bit address. So that's how we get that 128 bit address. That's how we use Hexi decimal and convert by unmarried Hexi Decimal inaccessible to binary, using our 1248 and then realizing that once we hit 9 10 is a 11 is B 12 is C
09:37
13 is D 14 is E and 15 is F.
09:41
Now we have this long I p v six address
09:45
and
09:46
the makers of I P V six recognized that it's gonna take a long time to get used to this. And it's gonna be very difficult to ride out this address like this every time. So they gave us a little bit of help in that they gave us some rules that can help shorten this address
10:03
with our I p V six address. We can get rid of consecutive zeros one time
10:09
by the use of a double colon by the use of a double colon like this.
10:16
Now the reason we can on Lee use this double colon once is because this double colon, in order for our computer to find out how many zeros we're replacing with this double colon takes however many other digits that we have in our
10:35
I p v six address
10:37
takes all those other digits and says, Okay, I know I have 32 Hexi decimal digits total.
10:43
I have
10:45
28 that I can see. That means that I'm missing four zeros. That must be what this double is replacing. It's replacing four zeros,
10:56
but if we did this in multiple points, if we put a double colon in multiple points are computer won't be able to tell, it'll be impossible to tell how many double how many sets of zeros each colon replaces. If we use a double colon twice in our address at different points
11:15
and we're missing four zeros.
11:16
Is it to Zeos for this and six for this one or that four here and four here or we don't know.
11:24
So our double colon, we can only use once and typically we would want to use this in the place where it would save us the most amount of zero writing. So we have our address here, and we noticed the most consecutive sets of zeros we have is right here at the end. So we'll just take away the zeros
11:43
and replace them with a double colon at the end.
11:52
Now, we can also emit leading zeros. So
11:54
our zero d b eight
11:58
we could admit that zero
12:01
and our computer knows that. Okay, I'm missing is a missing a character here in this set of four,
12:09
it must be a zero because the only thing the only reason I'd be missing a character here is if it was a leading zero, so we can emit leading zeros.
12:18
And then again, we were We can replace sets clusters of zeros with that double hyphen. So by using these,
12:26
I'm using these tips. We can reduce our I P V six address by a little bit, but it's still a long address, and it's still going to be a system that we're gonna have to get used to in the future. But as for now, we're still using. I pee before mainly with these with our four octet SAR 32 bit dot a decimal format.
12:46
So just a quick rapid of our I. P V four verses R I P. V six. We want to remember that our I p before is going to be a 32 bit dotted decimal address with four octet CE of eight binary digits in each octet, and this gives us four billion addresses.
13:03
R I P V. Six is going to be a 128 bit address,
13:07
which gives us 340 trillion trillion trillion I p addresses.
13:13
It's going to be a Hexi decimal address with 32 characters, Hexi decimal, each character represented by four binary digits
13:24
in each of our Hexi decimal sections. We have a couple of rules we can only use zero through F because that's the way that Hexi Decimal works.
13:33
Consecutive zeros can be replaced by a set of double Coghlan's one time. So if we have a string of consecutive zeros, no matter how long they are, as long as they're consecutive and long as we only replace using one only replace
13:50
a string of zeros using a double Colin. Once
13:54
we can do that, we could replace our longest string of zeros with those double Coghlan's.
13:58
And then lastly, we can omit leading zeroes in sections. So if we have a leading zero in a Hexi decimal set between two Coghlan's, we can omit those leading zeros and our computer automatically add them back in. So by recognizing our differences between our I, P Before and I P v six will be able to be,
14:18
ah, little bit more ready for the transition. I P v six will understand how our computer's address using I P. V. Six
14:24
and will understand how to make these long dresses a little bit shorter

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