Hello and welcome to Module 102 of the Lenox Plus course,
and this module. We're gonna be talking about the installation of Lennox
and management of packages. That includes a lot of other topics as well.
We can see that this is 18% of the exam, so it's a second largest body of knowledge from aspires, Content goes,
and we have five different
main topics for this module. We'll start off with designing the disc lay out and some of the considerations for
how that should be done for a particular type of system.
Then we'll go into the boot, man, your options, which we touched upon a little bit in the last module. We're talking a bit about grub.
Shared libraries also need to be covered. Since that's part of the exam,
we'll see what that's about. Why those air needed
that will contrast and compare the different package management systems from Debian or from RPM and Young.
And then we'll compare the different package management systems for Debbie in
we'll see how those stack up against much one another's fires, usability and ease of use. Really?
All right. Starting off with designing our display out.
One of the things we need to think about is if we've got a physical disc,
it has to be partitioned in order to create file systems.
There are various different schools of thought for how partitioning should be. Don't so we'll talk about a little bit of that.
Some of the reasons that
a certain scheme over a difference game has chosen is because of what the purpose of the system is.
We want to also verify that,
as we talked about a little bit in the last chapter, that there are certain details about our hardware that that need to be checked to make sure we have full compatibility for the intended purpose of the of the system
that our last topic will be to cover the logical value manager.
And you do need to have some understanding of what it's four and some of the basic commands is pretty easy to use,
and I think you'll agree once you start practicing with these commands.
So as I was standing about the physical devices,
once I create a partition or partitions, I need to think about file systems.
Ah, file system is a, uh,
a defined area on the hard drive,
which has certain capabilities and features
in order to deal with
storing, retrieving and organizing data
fouls. File systems have lots of different characteristics, depending on which ones you choose, and we'll see some of those comparisons a little bit later.
interesting choices available, depending on what your servers actually gonna be doing.
Now, the file system has to contain
lots of different data structures to keep track of where all the folders are, or the directories and all the individual files within those folders or directories.
The basic details air here that we'd expect to find with any file or directory, which is when it when it was created, Who owns it? Which group owns it?
And, of course, maybe most importantly, what are the permissions? So who's allowed to access this directory or file?
Now the simplified mater of Managing Lennox. We can install everything in one single partition,
which is what I've done for the virtual machine that I built
This is obviously very convenient,
but the downside is that
in a true production environment could be dangerous. It might not be something that you want to do.
The main reasons are that if route or the boot partition become full,
which could happen through for various
under very circumstances. If that happens, then the system may not be allowed to boot.
Or if it happens while the system is up and running, you may have problems with stability and may crash.
And now you've got to go into some recovery procedures to take care of the problem.
So the way to get around this is to separate
certain file systems into their own partition.
Specifically, the home partition is a good choice for this
user, possibly even far
the main advantages that I can create a file system for all my home directories of all my users. This keeps their data separate and isolated
in case of somebody doing something that uses up a lot of space. They don't have any way Thio
Philip the boot partition or the route partition by filling up their home directory, and that's what we're trying to avoid.
So, of course, there is more administrative overhead
in dealing with multiple file systems on a disk multiple partitions.
But as you'll see in later sections of this course, it's not really all that hard.
It just takes a little bit of practice to get familiar with the comedians in the concepts,
usually in a production system that you're trying to maximize performance. We typically have more than one disc.
There might be several several disks involved in just in the operating system, and it's required file systems.
This is done for performance reasons, typically where I want to have,
dedicated partition for booting for the operating system.
But then I might have other partitions,
different discs in order to isolate them for protection reasons and also to maximize the possible performance that I might get
If I've got a system that's fighting over access to its own partitions, that that churn will definitely have an impact on performance for a very busy system.
We also have to consider the importance of swap space.
Swap space is needed because physical memory
is limited. Of course, disk storage is limited. But if my system has, let's say, 16 gigabytes of RAM,
that might not be that much for a server. That's that's a typical amount for maybe a work station these days.
if my system had that much memory and
it was running out of space,
it's getting busy. There's lots of users and attaching to the system. Once memory becomes very full, we call that memory being under pressure.
Then the swamp space may be activated,
so we can think of this as a way to extend the physical memory into a purse special partition on the
storage part device itself.
Now, once swapping happens, the system can continue to operate. It can say, OK, my memory's full, but I can write some of my data to disk.
This means that the system will be allowed to keep operating, but the downside is that
performance will suffer,
and we can see if a few of the commands here
for investigating these features.
We can start off with make swap.
I'll run the health command for that.
And all we're doing here is just as it says, trying to define a new partition that could be used for swap space.
Sometimes you have to do this on the fly. Maybe you've got a system that's
already configured with with some swap, but maybe it's not large enough
additional swap needs to be created.
And if you look at the man page, we get a little more detail. As I mentioned earlier, I always encourage everybody to
start off with a dash dash, help or dash H for help and then go to the manual page to get more details
because you've got a few options here from specifying the label specifying the size of pages.
Another good tip when you're looking at man pages is to use the slash key because this is the man function utilizes V I style editing. So if I type slash, this means I'm going to be searching for something,
and I can just search for the word exam or example.
All right. This one doesn't have any examples, but many man pages do have examples, and that gives you a little bit of extra information for
Once my swap space has been,
um, created, I can use swap on,
we played this to Moore's. We can see it all
here. I'm telling my operating system, I've got a partition have created for swamp,
and I want to enable it,
So I run the swap on command. I specify the path to the two that file.
Let's see if I have any
that's fine. Not Everyman patrons examples, as we concede.
we could also see that it's fairly simple. I tell it that I want to turn on this swap.
the device for also slash dev slash s d b.
One or something of that nature. Whatever the partition is,
once I've done that,
then the swap becomes available
There's a separate command to enable and disable. Of course,
just because I added to the system doesn't mean it's ready to use.
And then conversely, Aiken also disable swamp and
remove it from the configuration
that might be needed
because you've decided to add more physical memory and now you don't need
swaps. Makes for as much Watts maze.
Just remember, swap is slower
but keeps the system running so that it can stay operational long enough for
the required maintenance to be done.
Now, when you're going through the install process,
you have many options to choose from misfired what type of surveyed like to build. We start out for the minimal installed, which is just what it sounds like. No gooey, very basic service is
this is a no, the smallest footprint, if you will.
But other times, maybe you've got more specific ideas in mind. If I want to build an infrastructure server, I might decide I'm gonna be adding
a l dap or D H cp or D N s. Some of the basic service is that I would find in a typical infrastructure, I can define those when I build the server
pre build many of these capabilities instead of having to add them later.
Filing Printing, Server, Web Server These are obvious choices as well.
I could also define my linen server as a virtualization host,
which is pretty interesting to have the hyper visor running on Lennox.
I typically use hyper visors on windows like the, um, where workstation. But you've got these options
production environment. If you want to use a Lennox virtualization host,
then we have the server with gooey, which is what I built for the course.
This installs a window manager and gives you the options to choose other window managers as well.
The development of creative work station includes lots of different tools, graphics, tools, audio tools,
software development tools.
So when I select one of these items on the interface on the right side of the interface, it will show me all the different sub options that I have available.
So if I was running my server with the gooey, I could have different things here, like Java Support Load Bouncer support,
high availability if I'm building a cluster or something similar to that.
So there's lots of different ways to
make the initial installation much easier to deal with for these different capabilities.
Now I could think about making sure that our system is able to
utilized the hardware that it's being installed upon
the master boot record, the NPR.
Everyone probably has some awareness of this, but this is the first sector on the disks, and when I turn a system on the NPR is the first thing that's red.
And once that that master boot record is is right into memory, it knows where the partitions are. To start the loading of the operating system,
Lennox defines primary partitions and extended partitions,
also somewhat similar to the way that Windows works as far as having
some limits on the basic partitions that you can create.
And then, of course, depending on
what size discs you were using, whether or not you want to use the
the Good partition table scheme or G p T.
Then we can expand from these basic
anyway. So for more traditional approach primary partitions, I just have four options there
and a relatively low limit on the size of the disc.
This is mainly due to the fact that these were these standards were created when systems were mostly 32 bit architectures.
Then there are extended partitions that could be created. So if three more of those 56 and seven
and this was done when primary partitions were not considered to be sufficient. And primary means that the partitions are defined for things like booting for the operating system and for more of the core pieces of the OS,
whereas the extended partitions might be for other areas like slash opted or
user directory, home home directories and those kinds of things,
if I want to use large disks that I'm probably going to the GPT scheme
because now I can use
ah ah huge desk 80 bites.
And because I have 100 28 partitions possible, I don't have to deal with extended in. Primary. Difference is, I can just
create the disc using this scheme and have the ability to grow and expand into quite a large,
some of the built in or features you can add, rather to Lennox, is the volume manage logical value managers very easy to use,
and I can demonstrate some of these commands here in just a moment.
What I've done is added a
a, uh, an additional virtual hard disk to my
and I'll show you how that's done as well, since most of you are probably going to be using
Lynette's virtual machine for this for this course
anyway, once I've got a disc in this case a slash dev slash SD beast, because he just be
scuzzy. Just a is already created by default when I built the system. So now when I create a new one gives the next letter the and the sequence, which is be
so I have to run the PV, create command to initialize this physical volume to be used inside of a volume group.
Once I do that, I can use Petey display to see my my physical volume that I just created. Make sure it looks correct.
Then I can create a new volume group,
or I can add the physical volume to an existing violent group.
I can also display that volume grew by using DJ display
to see any any violent groups that are configured. And lastly, I could use the LV create logical volume creation
and l ve display commands to see what I've actually built.
So let's go ahead and
have a look at this.
First, I'm going to run a command that we looked at in the last
I'm gonna list my block devices l s B. Okay,
and you'll notice that
I created This is a one gigabyte disk
and I'll show how this is done. Very simple. With virtual machine.
All I have to do is right. Click on my settings.
This is via more workstation for those that aren't familiar. But if you're using hyper V or virtual box, you'll figure out how to add hardware.
So I go to my settings
and you'll see I have two discs. I could have 1/3 disc, which I will demonstrate here. So I'll click. Add.
I want to select a hard just by default. That's good.
I'll keep it as a scuzzy disc.
Create a new virtual disc,
and I'll just use another one gigabyte.
I usually prefer to store my discs as a single file versus that Thea default of multiple files.
You can read the description as to why that would be, but single files are just little bit easier to deal with.
And now, by default, it gives me a name.
The previous disk I added, was the same name, but but it was a zero here instead of a one.
Now it's since I added 1/3 disc.
I get the next number of sequence, which is one.
So go ahead and click that click. Okay,
and the fastest way for that disk to be
usable is to just do a quick reboot.
So I'm gonna do a shutdown dash are for reboot, and I'll say I want to do it now.
This should only take
Luckily, virtual machines boot very quickly.
There are other ways thio to initialize that that new storage. But a reboot is the easiest thing to deal with for right now. So we're gonna go ahead and take that.
Take the simple approach.
Yeah. I'll get myself Longden
and open your command show.
I would like to make it full screen,
and I'm gonna enlarge to find a little bit. Remember, the shortcut for this is control shift. Plus,
you could change this in settings to give you a default fun size. That's larger. I'll show you to do that here in just a moment.
Let's do that real quick.
So I'm gonna go to my profile preferences for the shell
I can I can create a name for the profile.
I usually don't do that.
Uh, for colors. I like green on black personally. That's a favorite because it reminds me of my early days using
units and Lennox, and it's just kind of easy on the eyes as well. But you can change different aspects of the
I could define the scroll buffer
1000 lines pretty good. There's also some compatibility settings for different applications,
but going back to the general
window here, I can define
what the starting sizes 80 by 20 four's pretty typical. And I can pick my custom font.
So I'm going to change this
And I think that added 14 on top of whatever he did before. So I'm gonna shrink it back down, just a touch and you shrink the duck back down from the keyboard anyway, by doing control minus control shift Plus
to enlarge a fine control minus to reduce it. Another handy shortcuts long as we're talking about, the show is controlled shifty,
which opens up another tab.
And now you see, I can still select between those two tabs.
This very handy when you're doing multiple things you don't want to keep on switching windows, I can just create multiple tabs just like a Web browser. It's very similar
L s blk now it shows me my new disc S D C.
So I'm gonna run the PV create command
You notice I can give multiple arguments. That's pretty handy.
And I could run PV display
to see those new discs.
There's destiny. Be tells me it's one gigabyte volume. There's my device file
also has a unique identifier the u I. D. For this physical volume
and then I have stc another one Good volume.
Now all I've done is just changed the partition table a little bit to initialize the disc.
Now I can create a new volume group so I'll run the V g, create command
and I'm gonna call this my V g
and I'm going to add Dev s t b and S t c.
They're simple, straightforward.
again use the dash help or the band page for more details.
I can now run v g display.
Now if I run this without any arguments, it's gonna just play
both vying groups My initial vine group which was created during installed Santo s
and then the new one. My view G
tells me that there are
to metadata areas which is my my two discs.
to current physical volumes. That's what Kerr P V stands for and both of those physical volumes are active.
So my vine group over all sizes
just under two gigabytes, you lose a little bit of space due to the overhead of managing the data structures.
And I have 510 physical extents.
You can allocate space using extents
if you like, or you can just specify size for for the purposes of the exam. You don't need to worry too much about extents, but it is another option to consider.
so my violin group is now created, and what I want to do next is to create a logical volume
the LV Create command. Let's run help on this.
See, It's got a lot of options,
so I can specify the size by extents.
I can even specify stripes if I'm creating a larger provide that's gonna span more than one physical disc, which I could do, because now I have to
to hardest in this volume group,
you could specify percentage is for your extents. So I either specify the size and megabytes
or by the extent an extent could be. It's a configurable unit of data, one mega by four megabytes and so on.
Or I can do it as a percentage, and you could do things like grow and shrink logical volumes
as as in addition to just creating them and creating violent groups.
So I'm gonna do a man page for LV. Create
and search for examples. Here we have many examples.
So very simple. One is just to create a biological volume
certain size and the von grouping specified.
So do something custom. Or to this
I will run LV create
dash How 100 megabytes
slash slash dev my V g.
Now by default, it just creates l l've all zero. I could have given it a label if I wanted,
and I can look at this. I couldn't say Let me display
this logical value by running LV displayed slash dev slash my view g
There's 100 megabytes
used, 25 logical extents, which means that my four megabyte extent, which is kind of a usual default,
that's that's currently how many extents I'm using to create 100 next segment.
So it's very simple.
And as we'll see later, once we create a logical volume, then we can put a file system on it.
Let's look at the home
we're looking over. You just play again
what I can do with this is I can see where my
logical volumes exist on all of the
discs in the volume group,
as it says, we just need basic knowledge of logical volume. Andrews. So
visit PV great to initialize the device
and then display them to make sure you've done it correctly. I can create vowing groups
using those physical devices and then create logical volumes. Logical vines could be designated for a single disk or that can be striped across multiple disks,
and you might do that for performance or redundancy reasons.
All right, so these are some of the commands that we looked at, um, in this section,
first virus file systems go
some of the ones that are created by default.
We can run the D F command. We'll see more of this later. But
if I run D f for disc usage, I can use the dash H option for human readable, which we talked about a previous section.
But you'll notice that
I've got my root file system.
I also have boot, so that's on scuzzy device, a partition one,
and then I still have my city room
mounted. If I wanted to create new file systems on
other logical volumes I've created, which will do later than they would also show up here.
All right, so that's the end of the hardest layout
I will see in the next section, which is installing a boot manager. Thank you.