the next standard that we need to be aware of far different devices is power over Ethernet, also known as P O E. Now power over Ethernet, it falls under the IEEE 802.3 a f standard. This is just a the organization and then the particular standard that they use in order to regulate
on specify how power over Ethernet works.
That's all this 802.3 f stands for and power over Ethernet is useful for devices that we need to provide power over a standard Ethernet cable. So what we mean by power over Ethernet is that we have we have a standard Ethernet cable. We have a high category Ethernet cable that we plug into a switch
and then our switch is going to actually send not only electrical data
over that cable, but also going to send electrical current over that cable. Now, this is this is useful for devices such as VoIP voiceover I P phones or small. Can I pee cameras that we may have set up
and it allows us to power these remote devices without having tohave an additional power cable going to them
all. We need to do is have a single Ethernet cable that goes to them and the Ethernet cable supplies, data and electrical power to power the device.
So that's what power over Ethan that allows us to dio. If you're ever If you're ever stripping a cable that's already plugged in somewhere that is providing power over Ethernet, and then you try to strip it with your teeth, you'll be reminded if you had if you make a connection, if you finish the current with your tongue,
you'll be reminded that power over Ethernet exists.
It won't be enough to throw you across the room, but it'll be a nice, sharp, tangy flavor that reminds you that hey,
electricity is here. Electricity is flowing through this line,
so power over Ethernet typically runs on pins. 123 and six on our Ethernet cable, now
one and two and three and six work together in pairs one and two.
Cind, Cind Electrical send electricity one way, and then three and six send it back the send back the other way to finish the current. If you ever worked with electrical devices or you've ever you've ever worked with currents, you know that you have to close a circuit
in order to allow electricity to function properly
in order to allow an electrical current to occur if you have a light if you have, ah, small electrical diagrams set up where you have a
you have a light bulb on one end,
very badly drawn light bulb on one end,
and then it goes over to a battery.
You can't just connect a single strand over to that bat. One that battery's positive terminal. You have to have a second cable coming out of the negative terminal,
which also goes over to the battery. And if that and then the light bulb will light up.
And if any point during that connection, if you break one of those cables,
even though we still have one cable going over to the device,
we're not gonna get in the electrical power because we have to close the circuit.
So our pins wanting to work together to send they are send electrical signal one way and three and six work to send it the other way, thus effectively finishing our circuit.
that's how that's what our power over Ethan at Ethernet is providing electrical power over an Ethernet cable.
Next we have up our is our traffic filtering. Now. Our traffic filtering allows our routers to drop and inspect different packets. Now,
typically, a R router will just take packets. See what I p address important they're destined for, and they'll just route them to that I p address in port. But traffic traffic filtering actually allowed tells our routers to take those packets because it can. It works at a layer three networking protocol
and inspect what kind of information is inside of them. Inspect what kind of protocol they're running at,
what kind of data they may be transmitting it, and we can filter them by I p address or pack it tight. So if we want to block certain destination or source I p address packets, or if we want to block or drop certain packet types, then we may implement this traffic filtering and implement these different rules
in orderto block these packets.
Now, this axe, sort of as a firewall, would where our firewalls receive in data are they receive in packets and they block or allow based on different rules. So it's an additional security mean that we can put in to allow for filtering our data. Some of our routers even include built in software firewalls,
or we may still want to include a hardware firewall in our network.
But just know that when we have a router that is able to do traffic filtering, it is able to actually inspect and drop packets based on things like their I P address and their packet type
next that we have our diagnostics. Now, diagnostics is the ability for our device stability for a router or switch to provide us with additional information or error logs. So our router or switch keeps statistics based on
how many connections they've made count how many packets they've dropped or how many fragmented packets they've received.
And these these different statistics may give us a better idea of what's going on in our network. If we notice that we're getting statistics back with a Thanh of fragmented packets or a lot of drop packets or a very little network connectivity,
then we may want to investigate that further. We're receiving statistic back with a Thanh of
always constant network activity, we may need to investigate where that network activities coming from. So these different diagnostics are very useful to check out these different logs give it shows different errors that we can investigate and prevent
large network issues from occurring before they actually become a major issue.
Now, these diagnostics, the additional information and logs we made access directly through some sort of Web portal that we log into on our device or made exist on some sort of command line command line command that we need to enter in after we've connected directly to our device.
Or we may actually be able to set up an agent on our computer that receives
these statistics, receives thes data, and these era logs directly to our administrative computer. So, really, the way our diagnostics are delivered to us, the way our diagnostics function and how much they measure and how comprehensive their reports are, depend on the type of router, the type of device that we have,
type of rod or switch we have
and its functionality and how it was designed in program.
And then, lastly, here we have our quality of service now, quality of service, also known as que os prioritizes different packet types. So if we have a single router or a single switch that is sending packets that are just standard file transfer packets.
But it's also sending packets that are actual voice over I p or video streaming packets
will notice more of a delay, will notice more interruption if we are if our router is equally giving both of those different types of packets
So if our router says Okay, well, I have voice over I p packets and I have FTP file transfer packets. I'm gonna send one voice over I P packet one file transfer packet. One voice over I P packet, one file transfer packet in order to make things even. Well,
our file transfer packets we may not really care about as much. We may not need those to come through is quickly and as consistently, but our voice over I p packets were gonna notice We're having some calls that are breaking up. Very. Const are breaking up very constantly or we're having some Skype
videoconferences that are
there's a lot of interruption going on. So our quality of service helps to mitigate that by prioritizing packets that are more susceptible to delay. It says Okay, it identifies our packets and it says, Okay, these these packets air streaming voice over I p or these packets air streaming audio or they're streaming video.
And I know that if I
delay these packets, then it's just gonna be worse on the other end. The Skype packets that are coming through are just gonna look really bad on the on the in computer users computer. So I'm going to prioritize these particular packets. So I pushed them through fastest, and I push them through first.
The quality of service is a great feature toe have on our devices, especially in environments where we're using voice over I. P or video audio and where we have a lot going on at the same time so that we are able to prioritize our different packets. Prioritize Are different programs and sin packets based on
sent received packets based on
what we mean now versus what? What can take a few extra 100th of a second, such as a file transfer packet or just downloading some data