we mentioned in the beginning of this module that after learning of all about all of our different components that we would want to revisit it in order to put everything all together again. So we have our T c P I P suite,
and that's our general idea. And that's our general suite of ports and protocols and communications protocols, which work together to allow us to network over the Internet are the TCP I. P. Suite is how the Internet works. It's the suite of ports and protocols which allow the Internet and networking toe work.
Networking can work without the TCP i P suite, but we need the T c I p P suite in order to allow all the connections necessary for the Internet to function properly toe work. So
R T C P I. P suite is composed of several different components. Um, we have our network and data link protocols. Now, our network and data link protocols are protocols within the TCP I P suite which don't necessarily have ports associated with them that still
our protocols, which work based on that T c p i p stack.
So we have I, C and p i g mp and art.
So if we were to look at our network and data link protocols within our T c p i P suite,
um, we redraw our map over here and our t c p i p sweet protocols are what we have in black. There's a lot more going on with our t c p i p suite. There's a lot more detail that we could draw in here, but these are just what we need to be concerned about just to understand this concept.
So roos I model are different layers are in red
our actual TCP i p stack and are sorry, our actual t c p i p suite is gonna be in black. So you can almost think of the red as being less of physical layers. And the red is Maur a guideline. It's an idea of how all of these different
ports and protocols work together in order to allow networking to occur.
The S I model are Please do not throw sausage pizza away Model is not really a physical
thing so much as it is
taking the method and taking the way that networking works and breaking up into layers so that we can better understand how the how the networking segments itself up. So we're looking at this through a lens of the S I model
and those I model is in red and it's over laid on top of our
TCP I P suite, which is in black.
So we have our layer three and our laywer too.
I see and P and I g NPR built off of i p addressing we talked about how part of our t c p i p suite is this I p part and I p stands for Internet protocol.
Internet protocol is what allows us to route everything.
And as you can see everything from
everything else is connected to this I p.
That's because everything in here in our t c p i p suite is somehow connected to i p even address resolution protocol address resolution protocol is connected to i p. But it isn't dependent on I p r i. P addressing isn't dependent on art.
But that being said I cmp and I GMP Witten,
the protocols wouldn't work without I p addressing they wouldn't work without our i p o scheme.
So we need the I P Protocol in order to create addresses toe logically assign physical network interface ports with logical addresses that we can send around the world. And that's what the I P Protocol does. The I P Protocol creates those logical connections between
and Mac addresses and allows us to route this information around the world.
So we need I pee in order to route all the rest of our data and all the rest of our protocols.
So everything else needs to be built on that.
I see and P and I g NPR still it layer three because they aren't part well, they aren't part of our transport layer. They aren't part of our layer four and they aren't associated with any ports.
I si m p we talked about is our
air messages and our
available to be reached messages where we have ICMP echo requests which are paying replies in which we're sending out messages and saying Hey, are you there? And we're seeing if we can get an echo reply back using ICMP
and our GNP is our Internet group message. Our Internet group management Protocol in which we're managing our different multicast addresses and we're managing our multicast membership
and both of those air built on our I p but they're still under Are there under our layer? Three of roos I model
the same with our routing protocols are routing. Protocols are still layer three of roos I model, but they're related to i p addressing
our routing protocols. Need I p addressing in order to find the best routes in order to use metrics in order to to determine where to send I p address two packets, but we don't need to use a transport protocol. We don't need to use a communications protocol such as TCP or UDP,
in order to make our routing protocols rip open shortest path
first, etcetera work properly. They can work. They work just fine simply by using metrics simply by accumulating data and creating paths through different routers.
Our routing protocols are part of that layer three part of our networking layer of roos I model.
Next up, we have our communications protocols. Now our communications protocols are going to be our laywer, for they're gonna be on our transport layer actually, before we hit those. Lastly, we have our little buddy down here,
which is on our data link layer, because he is just going to help, too.
Find and determined I P addresses and Mac address correlations. He's going to say, OK, who has this I p address? And they're going to respond with which Who is that? I p address, which Mac addresses that i p address. And that's why he's at the layer to data link layer and he doesn't need any transport layer protocols.
Next up we have our TCP and new DP protocols are tasty P and UDP Protocols, transmission control protocol and user data. Grand protocol are two communications protocols.
Anything layer four and above
is going to need some sort of packaging and is going to suck. Need some sort of
packets to be cut up and transmitted on to be routed somewhere.
when we talked about Roos I model, we talked about how our layer one is our physical layer. That's just our physical connections, as our network interface cards are. Layer two is our data link layer. It's our layer where we're just communicating with things like Mac addresses
or we're just utilizing Mac addresses. And that's our art.
Our layer three is going to be our networking layer are networking layers. Where we're going to establish I p addresses is we're going to be using routing protocols were going to be using ICMP and I, G and P
layer four r T c P and U T P model.
We're sorry. Our transport, our transport layer are going to be utilizing protocols such as TCP or UDP in order to transport packets.
So we have all these other packets up here. We have d N s. We have FTP. We have https age, trivial FTP and many more that we just didn't include for simplicity's sake
that need to be packaged and transported somehow.
if we didn't have t c p and U T P in there,
they would need some other protocol in order to know how to practice package and transport them.
very simplistic way of putting it a very simplistic analogy would be almost to say that
from layer one through layer three,
we're really just taking packages and
where we're taking packages and we're giving him to the guy down the Hall.
We don't need to box him up. We don't need to transport them. We don't need to put them on. We don't need to put them up and push them and know how to package up and distribute them. But once we hit layer layer for once, we had our transport layer and are above protocols. Need this transport layer in order to know. Okay,
I have these packets. I have this http page
that I need to package up into chunks because I can't send the whole page at once, and I need to make sure that the other side gets it.
Well, that's not built into the HTT protocol. Http. Protocol to know how to do that
That's not built into the http protocol, the our protocol. We're loading Web pages to know how to segment up its own packets and how to send those and how to make sure that it's getting a read receipt.
That's gonna be the job of TCP.
TCP is a transport protocol. It's our UPS bus that we hired in order to package up,
cut up our packets into multiple different segments, send it off, and then verify that it got there and then do retransmission if necessary. That's all responsibility of our TCP Protocol
underneath of Artie CPI product TCP and UDP on. We talked about those in depth previously. We have our ports
and our ports are also going to be at layer for they're gonna be at our transport layer because our ports are going to be where where are going to be our data in points.
we need to have a location where we are receiving data streams or sending data streams from.
So think of it this way.
On our layer four, we have TCP and UDP working based on which which additional protocol they're using. So we have TCP sending out a http packet over Port 80.
TCP needs somewhere to send it from. We need a port. To send it from
that port is going to be on layer four
and that's gonna be port 80 port eighties where it's gonna send it from.
TCP works through that port to package and send that out
and then once it receives, once the other end receives an http packet, it's going to receive it
at that port 80 on our transport layer and then T c P is going to
read that message, and it's going to make sure that it's assembled properly
So that's why our ports are used on our layer four on our transport layer because they're part of that transport process,
Then we have our additional protocols.
Now, these additional protocols, whereas while all of these are considered protocols, these air gonna be our protocols, which come after our layer four and they're gonna be protocols which are associated with port numbers. And these include everything
D H c p D N S D H C P
is a networking protocol.
But as you can see, it relies on new DP, so it's still going to need a port number so that you d pecan package and send those packets.
So that's why D H cp, even though it's under networking, is still going to need a port number. It's still going to rely on UDP or TCP in order to package and send that information.
Um, but D H cp is just under our networking protocol because it's what we used to configure I p addressing information and networking information.
we have our additional protocols, such as D N s FTP https S H T F T P, which are all going to need ports
on our laywer for transport layer in order to communicate with.
domain name. We have our domain name service. We have our final transfer protocol. We have http. We have SS agent, T, F, T P and many, many others that need ports they need.
And they need a communications protocol to package up
their information to send their information to verify that it gets there. Or in the case of UDP, just send the information and to break that information up into packets and get it out.
So this is this is our overview again of how are all of these different formats work together?
Um, So before we close out,
let's just do a run through of a http packet again
and hit all these different areas that they're connected to, so
we're on our computer
and we want to visit a web page.
So when we go on our browser, our browser initiates a get request
to the Web pages, read the Web pages address at Port 80.
our browser is going to send that get request,
it's gonna get to the other end. And the Web page is gonna begin trying to send us that Web page.
knows how to package up, knows how to package up and send a web page using http the http protocol
and knows howto http protocol knows how to take that Web page knows how to take that HTML or that other information it needs and package that up so that it can be shown on application so it could be shown on a browser and knows how to take that information and make it user readable.
What it doesn't know how to do is it doesn't know how to package the information and send it.
It doesn't know how to verify that it got there. It can't perform it, can't break up our packets and perform verification that can't perform retransmission. That's the job of our TCP protocol.
So a TCP protocol takes on these http packets and says, Okay,
I'm gonna break these up. I'm gonna send them out, but I need somewhere to send them from. I need somewhere to initiate a connection to a data stream
and it says, Okay, the default port for this protocol I'm handling right now, http, is poor 80. So I'm going to send it out of Port 80 and I'm going to send it to Port 80.
So that's the sport is gonna send it to
what TCP does not know. And what http does not know is how to rout those packets.
That's the job of I p
these packets I'm gonna train. I'm gonna take these packets from this network, and I'm gonna route these packets, and I'm going to send them over to a different network. And I know how to rout these packets so that they can get to that that get to that other network. I p is going to provide a dressing so that our, um
our lodge are physical.
Our physical Mac address has an I. P. Address. I p addressing is going to perform all those functions that I peep forth portion.
So we're now down in our I p portion.
those packets have been our app. That Web page has been broken down into http packets.
Those packets have been transmitted over TCP in order to break up those packets into our break up those sections in those packets that we need to send,
They've been pushed out over our port 80 and our I p address ing has routed those packets to where they need to go.
where we need to have that I p address. We're sending those packets too.
Now go to one particular network interface card.
So now we have our little buddy art
and art is going to say, OK,
who is 1 92.1 68.1 dot 13? Because I have a packet for him to go to Port 80
and then it's gonna respond back. Art is going to get us a response back that says, Hey, I'm 1 92.1 68.1 dot 13 and this is my Mac address.
And then we'll use that going down to our physical layer in order to pass physically the connection over the cables
to that network interface card.
this is how a t c p i P suite all works together.
This is how all of our different protocols interlaced together. All of our network and data link protocols are communications protocols and then are different ports and protocols, which are based either on TCP or UDP
and how we have. And this is how we can have protocols such as
Rip, O S, P, F, I, C and P, I, G, P and R
that don't have port numbers that don't necessarily have port numbers because they aren't based on TCP or UDP.
They are based on a transport protocol. They're just networking or data link our data layer protocols.
hopefully after our beginning explanation and then all of our detailed explanations of all these different parts and then finally are in explanation, all of this made sense.
If not, we can maybe dive into this further. We can take it. We can take it at a different We can take it from a different angle. But knowing this information, being able to apply this information is not only useful for passing the tests, but it's useful for just understanding how networking works.
And like we said in the beginning,
it's useful for understanding that when we're sending a data data packet to another computer
networking isn't just connecting a wire to two computers. There's so much more involved in networking. There's so many more protocols and there's so much more going on than just a copper wire between two ports.
So thank you for joining us here today on Cyber Dude at 80. Today we pushed together two of our modules. 1.5 and 1.6 are explaining networking protocols and identifying common TCP and you dp ports. We squished up. We switched our different modules together
to form one big module because it's really two related modules
on. We talked about everything from the TCP I p stack, how integrates and how it works in comparison with the S I model. How we use that and how we use our communications protocols are networking and data link protocols and all of our different ports and our other protocols. So
take this information, learn it, absorb it, get those port numbers memorized with there's default protocols, understand what those protocols do, and you'll be better for it. You'll be better at understanding how networking works. And if you're going to pass the Humpty and Network plus exam, you'll be better off for understanding and having these memorized. So
thank you, and hopefully we'll see you here next time on separate that out