next we have our TV. Our in our o t d R r T d r stands for our time domain reflector reflect ometer and R O T. V. R Is our optical time domain reflect ometer. Now what is a TVR? Well, a TVR is a device which sins, which essentially sends a signal down a cable
and waits for a reflection back on that cable
are electronic signals do reflect back when they hit certain points in our cable and are reflect. Ometer can measure that now are reflect ometer when it sends the signal down the cable, and it listens for the reflection. It can use special algorithms, which could determine things such as estimating a distance on that cable,
determining if there's any major faults in that cable, or where we may spice off that cable into other cables,
or even when we take that cable and we connect it to a different device, or we connected off into an additional additional section in order to connect it to another cable. So these these reflect on motors are extremely useful for doing things such as
testing sections of cable that are in areas that are hard or very impractical, cool to remove,
such as maybe a backbone cable that goes through the ceiling or under the floors or is buried in the ground
and this time domain reflect ometer. If, say, we're having issues with that cable, and we want to see if we can locate where a fault is, we can hook that time domain, reflect ometer to the cable, send a signal down the cable, wait for the reflection and then the algorithm and the software inside the device can let us know. Okay, I'm estimating that this cable is about
50 meters long and there looks like there's a fault somewhere between meter 25 35. So maybe we can measure it out and we can find out where that fault is or if necessary, dig up the cable or it says, Oh, everything seems just fine on this section of cable. You have a couple slices here, but those were supposed to be there.
Then we can do that as well, and we don't have to dig up that cable or search for any issues on that cable.
We also have an O. T. R, which is an optical time domain reflect ometer, and this is exactly the same as our TV, our acceptance for fiber. Now remember that fiber cables use light signals rather than using electrical signals.
So that's why we have optical time. The main reflect ometer because we're transmitting with light signals we're transmitting with something that could be seen.
So we need a different type of device because it doesn't measure electrical impulses and wait for electrical returns. But rather it sends light impulses and wait for waits for light returns.
Now, next we have our multi meter now are multi meter is going to be a device which measures electricity, and it can measure measure electricity in different ways. The main ways that we're gonna be using a multi meter four are going to be made to measure resistance. Current voltage and continuity now
or measuring resistance were essentially measuring the resistance to be best between two electrical components on our device.
On we're seeing if we maybe had actually measuring a resistor itself to make sure that it's functioning properly, or we may be measuring the resistance of an unknown, locate our unknown resistance between two devices on our on a certain circuitry on a certain circuit board,
then next we have our current
now with our current and our voltage. We need to be very careful when we're do using the proper measurements for these. And we're selecting the correct the correct settings on our multi meter and worth a measure, our current and our voltage. This video, this video alone is not enough to go out and start using a multi meter and putting the prongs and electrical sockets.
unless you are. You have further more specialized training on how to use this device properly. So But
all we really need to know for all that we really need to know for the sculpt scope of this module is that we can measure the resistance currents involved current in voltage as well as a continuity and what those four things are.
And then, lastly, we have our continuity. Now our continuity is going to be the connection between two locations on a board. If there is in fact electricity that can get from this point to this point, if it can form a circuit with that with those two points, eh? So essentially we would take our two prongs
place are positive on one point and place our negative on another point and then wait and see using the readout on our readout on our display, and it would let us know, depending on the negative or the negative. We're the number one we get.
Whether we actually have a connection between those two points,
whether there's continuity between those two points or whether there is no electrical, there's no circuit that's going between those two points. Eso This continuity is especially especially useful if we're having issues say with a motherboard that we've mounted inside of a case, and we want to see if there's some sort of electrical connection
that's causing a short between components on the motherboard and maybe the metal case itself.
Eso using our multi meter We could test not placing one prawn on a point on our metal case and another problem on a point on our motherboard and see if there's continuity between those two points. If there's electricity, that that could be flowing between the metal case and the board are motherboard, which could be causing issues. But the multi meter is a very, very diverse tool.
well worth your time in order to actually go beyond the scope of this module and learn how the ways to use the multi meter in your environment because it could be very useful beyond just testing motherboards but checking resistance, checking voltages, using it to test power supplies, using it to test
continuity on certain cables and using it to test on, say, even a keystone
or on connectors connectors.
But again, for the scope of this module, we're just going. Just remember that multi meter tests electricity, and we can use it to test things such as resistance, current voltage and continuity.
And then, lastly, we have our environment. Iron mental monitor. Now our environmental monitors are devices which can actually measure environmental environmental measurements within a, say, a server room or within even a computer case. These can measure things such as humidity, temperature, number of
a number of dust particles that are in the air
inside ah, temperature inside of our case and the skin. They can read this information back to us. They can put it in logs, or they could be even configured to send alerts to our email. If things get above a certain threshold,
computers could be very sensitive, especially our server environments can be very sensitive to things like moisture and heat on dust particles. So we need to make sure that we keep environmental monitors on those things so that if there is a temperature rise or a temperature spike in our server rack,
we don't want our servers melting. We don't want our c p used to be damaged or our servers to shut off
because of ah, temperature overheat. So we set our environmental monitor well below our danger point. But above where we want our temperature threshold to be, so that when our temperature spikes, we get an alert and then we can check it out. Our environmental monitors,
maybe set to say, automatically shut down components or introduced new cooling into a system in order to help cool things down. But typically, our environmental monitors are really going to be used for logging and letting us know, alerting us to the fact when certain thresholds air reached so that we can fix the situation and prevent damage to equipment.
So thank you for joining us here today on Cyber Eri
Today we talked about a lot of our different tools that we have for being able to test our network. Connectivity and tests are different network components. We talked about our cable testers and our toner probes, as well as multi meters and our creepers and our punch down tools. So all these different tools that are very useful to have in our tool bag
some of them maybe more specialty tools such a czar
TD R and R o T D. R. Or, say our cable certify air and we may not see just on a day to day basis unless we're actually working for a company or maybe an Internet service provider, where we need something like a but set in order to make sure that we're we have our cables and sold properly. We have a connection to our Internet service provider, so
but all of these different tools are It's important for us to know what they do and how they work,
as well as being able to recognize them safe. We're looking at taking network plus exam, and we want to be able to recognize if we're if we're told oven object and we're told. Okay, what does this do? What is a Butt said. Do what is a TVR do or an OTR? Do I need to know that? Okay, but said is used when we're,
say, installing a cable into our environment. We're testing the connection between our Demark point and our Internet service provider
and our TV R and R o T r are used in order. Thio. Make sure that we don't have any issues along the cable to take. We can measure estimate distances by waiting for a reflection back on a cable all of the concepts that we just went over. So remember these. Maybe make a little charts.
And then, as you grow in your growing your skills and add more things to your tool bags,
you'll be able to diagnose s'more Maur network connectivity issues and be ableto Maur effectively use tools to their fullest capabilities. So we hope to see you here next time and talk about some more tools on cyber dot i t