So now that we've talked about our fiber cables, now we're going to move into some of our more common cables are copper cables and our first copper cables that we're going to talk about our our u, T P and R STP cables. Now our first thing that we need to remember with our copper cables is that our copper cables, because they are made of metal
and they're transmitting electrical impulses, they're transmitting electrical signals.
These copper cables are so susceptible to electromagnetic interference when they run near lights, when they run near other electrical devices or when they run through electromagnetic fields, they they're susceptible to having damage done to those frequencies they're having. The packets that we're sending and the electrical signals were sending over our cable
are have the potential to have interference caused on them,
thus causing damage to our packets. So because of this, typically are length of our U. C. P R. STP cables are going to be 100 meters maximum. Now. This is 100 meters of a single cable length. If we attach devices in between, them were able to push the signal on further, but
with our U T, p and R S T P, R U, T p and R s a p stand for unshielded and shielded twisted pair. Now why do we call it? Call it unshielded and shielded? Twisted pair? Well, as we can see with our example here,
unshielded and shielded twisted Pair is actually a
cable strand that's made up of smaller individual cables.
Now the smaller individual cabling
are actually pairs of cable that are twisted together
so we can untwist them. When we're going Thio, put them into a connector. We're going to use them
now. Why are these cables twisted together?
Well, it's not just to look nice and to make it easier to manage these cables. These cables are twisted together because the twists actually helped to cancel out electromagnetic interference. There's a specific number of twists along each length of cable. There's a separate. There's a specific
twists per inch along our cable
because that particular twist pattern helps helps. A lot helps to prevent electromagnetic interference on a certain frequency. It has to do with the wavelength of the frequency we're using based on versus electromagnetic interference,
And the actual twists helped to cancel out electromagnetic interference
on each of the cable ings,
so that's why we twist them together.
Now we have unshielded twisted pair and we have shielded twisted pair. Now this is unshielded twisted pair. It's simply several cable's twisted together, and then, while they are in a rubber coating, this rubber coating isn't considered a shield. All this rubber coating is really doing is insulating it from weather,
preventing us from accidentally accidentally cutting these cables
and making them a bit more easy, easier to manage and move around through our through our spaces. So this is unshielded twisted pair.
Compare that to shield the twisted pair shield the twisted pair. Actually on top of these cables underneath of our underneath of our outer coating, we would have a braided metal shield along our cables. This braided metal shield
helps to further insulate and protect our cables against electromagnetic interference.
So are shielded. Twisted pair cables are able to go a little bit farther than our standard unshielded are shielded. Twisted pair can go a little bit farther than our standard shielded, twisted pair.
So we have our U, T P and R STP our unshielded payer, and are shielded twisted pair these air copper cables that have ah strand of this looks like a single strand of date cable that when we open it up, is actually multiple strands inside.
And these multiple strands inside are twisted together to help protects against electromagnetic interference
and our shield. A twisted pair still has these twists, but it also has a braided metal coating in order to further protect against electric met electromagnetic interference. So we saw a test question that said something like, Which of these cables would be? Which of these copper
our cause? A copper cable
which is least susceptible to electro magnetic interference. And we had a we had STP yu T p
bios. Well, bios is our throwaway answer. Their bios is the one that just making sure that we're awake in M F multi mode fiber, While that is the least susceptible to electromagnetic interference because it's made out of a glass rod.
It's not a copper cabling, and our questions specifically stated which of these are a copper cabling that is least susceptible to electric man
magnetic interference. And then our remaining two remaining two answers are you T P versus STP. Our unshielded twere payer versus our shield. A twisted pair we would want to select are shielded twisted pair because our shield a twisted pair is going to be least susceptible are least susceptible to electric moment magnetic interference
because we have that braided coding along the outside of it.
what type of shielded, twisted pair cable ings do we have a way? We talked about our fiber cable ings. We said that we had seven. We had a couple subcategories of fiber cable types. We have a couple subcategories of unshielded and shielded twisted pair cable types.
Now these are different cat cables. Cat three, cat five, cat five e cat six and cat six A.
There are other cat cables, as you can tell by we're missing cat one and cat, too.
But there are other cat cables, but cat three through cat six They are really the only ones that we need to focus on for this. For this particular model module, they're the only ones that we really need to know at this point in time. At this level
now, our cat three cable is going to be a cable which is going to allow for transmission speed of 10 megabits per second. So we're going to be pushing a 10 megabits per second connection, and it's going to transmit over a 16 megahertz frequency down that cable. So the the
our wavelength, our frequency length are free. Our frequency
of our data, which were transmitting down our cat three cable is going to be 16 megahertz, and we're gonna be transmitting at 10 mega R 10 megabits per second
now. Environments that utilize Thies this cat three cabling are typically referred to as 10 based T environments, so you may see a question. Or you may encounter a situation where you're looking at a network that is referred to as a 10 based T network.
And if you do encounter that,
for example, a test question that says, which, what? Which of these networks would be? A network that would run at 10 megabits per second would have max transmission rate of 10 megabits per second standard, and then one of our selections was a 10 based T network.
Then we would select that 10 based T network
and at 10 based team network is going to run at that 10 megabits per second. Remember the 10 and then look at the we have the 10 there.
Next up, we have cat five cable Now, cat five, cable is going to be a little bit of an upgrade. We're going to be pushing out at 101 100 megabits per second as our transmission rate. And we have two different
frequencies that we may be pushing over Cat five cable. We have 101 100 megahertz and we have 155 megahertz. Asynchronous transfer mode. Now
100 megahertz is what we're typically going to be pushing as a frequency over our cat five cable and the 100 megahertz is what we're gonna most commonly be seeing inside of our environment.
The 155 megahertz asynchronous transfer mode refers to a special type of connection that we have that involves point to point connective ity, that we will talk about a later module that when we're dealing with whan links wide area network links
in this asynchronous transfer mode
helps us and allows us to have that point to point connective ity, typically between us and another site through an Internet service provider. So we will get more and we will get into asynchronous transfer mode. Ah, bit more later. But for now, we want to remember be able to remember that cat five cable
typically runs at 100 megahertz per 2nd 100 megahertz
frequency and then 155 megahertz on Lee win asynchronous transfer mode.
And then we are running at 100 megabits per second as our throughput speed.
Now, our cat five cabling eyes going to typically be used in our 100 based T networks. So if we see our question, which which type of network would our cat five cabling typically be used in or what speed, what a 100 based T network be used in? This is what we need to memorize this what we need to know
in order to know that.
And then we have our cat five e cabling. Now we do have an example of our cat five e cabling here,
and our cat five e cabling is going to be pushing out
also at 100 megabits per second. Theoretically, we theoretically faster, but that's what we're going to say is our speed the 100 megabits for a second,
and it's also going to be 100 megahertz or 155. Megastar hurts asynchronous transfer mode. Now cat five e cable is able to eyes what we're going to use in our 1000 based T networks. So if you see this cat five e cabling, think our 1000 based E networks,
um and also remember that it is the same frequency in megahertz as our standard cat five cable.
This is this is, like, what our cat five e cabling use cat five e cable is.
Then we have our cat six cable cat six. Cable is going to allow us to transfer at one gigabits per second max, which is a significant bit more than our 100 megabits per second. So are one gigabit per second
throughput rate on our cables are what we're going to be using when we're in, say, our gigabit environments, where we have gigabit switches and gigabit network interface cards, and we're trying to speed up the throughput on our network. So are cats. Six cables are going to be running at 250 megahertz frequency ah, standard mode
in 155 megahertz asynchronous transfer mode. But again, in our typical environments,
we're gonna be pushing at 250 megahertz frequency on our cables, and these are also going to be our 1000 based T networks are Cat six cables.
We also have a cat six cable here,
and we can very quickly see the difference between a cat six cable and our cat five e cable. Our cat six. Cable is a lot more robust. We have a thicker, thicker outer layer that protects it against the environment. We act. We also have a core which helps keep this cable more rigid.
Cat five e cables a bit more flexible
than our cat six cable. So we have our different. We have the differences in our flexibility because of this corps that helps keep things stabilized. And then, of course, our cat six cables are. We also have these additional speeds that we can push that in these different frequencies. Now, if you're wondering if,
well, do I have to memorize?
Well, I have to know the small, barely noticeable differences between each of the cat cables to know which cable is which. Well,
fortunately, manufacturers manufacturers will typically help us by printing on our cables What type of cable that they are. So if we were to actually take a look at this cable, we would say, OK, this is a very five cable compliance. Uh,
tested for. Open. There we go. Cat five e cable. So
we know that with this cat five e cable. Um, we know we now know that this is a cat five cable, and we can use that knowledge when we're setting up our networks as to what type of speeds we can expect. And then we have our cat six cable and it also on it.
Well, let us know that it is
that it is a cat six cable. So again, taking that knowledge were able to implement it better in our in our networks, implemented better in our systems.
And then lastly, we have our cat six. A cable. Our cat six. A cable is going to be 10 gigabits per second, and we're going to be pushing at 550 megahertz. Standard no asynchronous transfer mode for this one. Cat six. A cable is going to be our 10 g based T networks. So remember
this 10 g you can think 10 gigabit
and with our cat three. That's on Lee, a standard 10 based T Network cat six a is 10 g based t.
if we want to speed up our network, if we want to speed up the rates that were transferring data, can we just replace all of the cabling in our environment with a different with a different cabling standard? You just rip out all of the cat three. Cable and replace it with a cat 66 a cable. Could we just replace the cable going from the wall to our computer with a cat? Six. Cable? Well,
We could replace the cat. Six. We could replace the cat five. Cable with this going from our computer to the wall with a cat six cable. But we may still have the same speeds.
This is because not we're not just relying on the cable specifications for the speed of our network. Our network isn't running at infinite speed, and then as soon as it hits the cable between our computer in the wall, that's worth slowing down.
All of the devices in our network have cable, have speed limitations, our network interface card has speed. Limitations are cables that go from our computers to the wall, have speed limitations are cables that travel through our ceiling, have speed limitations, the ports on our switches and our hubs and our routers and our bridges all have speed limitations.
And the Internet coming into our network has a speed limitation.
So don't think that just by changing one cable or even by ripping out all the cables in your walls and changing all the switches and changing all the network interface cards that you're gonna increase your speed to that absolute maximum theoretical speed when you're downloading from the Internet. Because that would mean that in order to get that speed,
say, if we if we needed to get if we wanted to get a
1 10 gigabit per second speed down from a server or we wanted to download files at one gigabit per second speed, then
it would need from one in point to the other to support one gigabit per second speed.
Our network interface card on our computer would need to be a gigabit gigabit network interface card. Are cabling would need to be cat six cabling from our computer to the wall. All of the cabling in our walls and ceilings would need to be cat six cables. All of our repeaters are switches are routers.
All of the devices in our entire network would need to support.
CAT six would need to support one gigabit speeds 1000 based T speeds, and then our Internet service provider would need to be providing us with that speed. And then the connection from our Internet service provided to the server we're trying to connect to would need to support that speed.
You get where I'm going.
don't just go and tell your management that just by swapping a few cables around, we can get these amazing speeds and that will have the super fast data transfer rates. Unless you've done the analysis and you made sure that's true, it may not be just by swapping someone's cable doesn't mean necessarily mean they're going to get these amazingly great speeds.
Changing out a network
from, say, a 100 base T network to a 1000 based T network is a very drawn out very, very long endeavor. We're gonna have to replace all the network interface cards and devices and cabling, and that could take
weeks. Or even that could take weeks of round the clock dedicated team support, or even months or even up to several years, depending on how large our environment is. So playing carefully when you are first setting up your network
and understand that going out and buying a box of cat six cabling
doesn't mean your network is gonna overnight turn into a gigabit network.