Wireless Standards: Frequencies (part 1)

Video Activity

Comparing and Contrasting Different Wireless Standards Different wireless devices work at different wireless standards. These are written standards for what this wireless frequency, wavelengths and connection that give information on how things stay standardized. The standards are known as the IEEE 802.11 A, B, G and N. The letters denote different...

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Time
31 hours 29 minutes
Difficulty
Beginner
CEU/CPE
30
Video Description

Comparing and Contrasting Different Wireless Standards Different wireless devices work at different wireless standards. These are written standards for what this wireless frequency, wavelengths and connection that give information on how things stay standardized. The standards are known as the IEEE 802.11 A, B, G and N. The letters denote different wireless types. This lesson also covers frequencies. A frequency is a wavelength band that measures in frequency waves per second.

Video Transcription
00:04
Hi and welcome to cyber dot i t. My name's Anthony and I'm your local subject matter expert for Network Plus. And today we're gonna be talking about comparing and contrasting different wireless standards. So when we're setting up a wireless network and we're using our wireless access points or wireless routers, we need to understand that these different wireless
00:21
devices can act, can work at different
00:24
wireless standards now are different. Wireless standards are different protocols and different wavelengths that essentially we create a standard for. And it's a written out standard that includes all the information for what this wireless frequency or what this wireless connection type
00:43
does, or how it connects,
00:45
what frequencies that uses and all the other necessary information we need to know in order to make sure that our standards work that they stay standardized among different devices from different vendors around the world.
00:55
Now
00:56
our standards are known and for wireless
00:59
is known as our IEEE 802.11 a, b, g and M.
01:06
So a NATO to 0.11 is our wireless standard and then attack on our A, B, G and N for different wireless types, typically in when we're referring to them. In short, notation will just refer to it as our A B G or in wireless types. So you may hear someone refer to a router as a as a B, G and n
01:25
compatible router.
01:26
Now our 802.11 a, b, g and n refer to different frequencies that they use different ranges that they have and different speeds that they have when they're transferring data. So they've been developed over the years, and we, they, you they're able to be compatible with other different types of standards and certain devices.
01:47
So when we're setting up our wireless network, we need to know which standard are devices they're compatible with.
01:51
So we know what access points to buy and set up.
01:55
Now. Our first standard are 802.11 a transmit at a max data rate of 54 megabits per second and has a range of about 120 meters.
02:06
Now this is going to be running at the five Giga Hertz frequency, and we'll talk about our different frequencies in a in a second. But just know that are five giga Hertz frequency. If you see that a certain a certain standard. It's five year hurts. That standard won't be compatible with another standard that is only 2.4 gigahertz
02:25
because they're talking at different frequencies.
02:28
It's like it would be like being on a on a different, different radio channel if you're if you're using radios or different radio frequencies. But so are devices. Can't talk to each other if they're using these different frequencies.
02:40
Our next is our 802.11 b now are 802.11 b R 802.11 g are very, very well. You are very commonly used standards. With today's wireless, we're starting to move more toward in but a 22.11 a never really took traction never really took off. Ah, lot of
03:00
the reason being because it uses its five Giga Hertz frequency
03:04
on because of its shorter range.
03:07
Are able to 0.11 b is going to give us a data throughput max of about 11 megabits per second, and we're going to have a max range of about 140 meters Seymour than our attitude about 11 A. But our data is going to be pushing through less.
03:23
However, we're going to be using 2.4 are 2.4 gigahertz frequency
03:27
in our 802.11 b.
03:30
Next up, we have our 802.11 g 802.11 g is going to be back to our 54 megabits per second,
03:38
but the same range about 100 and 40 meters,
03:40
and this is also going to be using our 2.4 gigahertz standard. Now any of our wireless devices are wireless access. Points that are using our G standard are backwards compatible with any network interface cards or devices using our be standard, mostly because they're both using this 2.4 gigahertz frequency.
04:00
Now, if we
04:02
we're trying to use a B or G device with an A device that was a Onley, it would not work because of the five Giga Hertz frequency
04:11
and then lastly and most recently in development, we have our 802.11 in our 802.11 in has a max data throughput. If we include things like our channel bonding of 300 megabits per 2nd 150 megabits per second chance. Each channel
04:29
so are 300 megabits per second.
04:31
I was going to give us a max of 250 meters, and it's going to be able to use 2.4 gigahertz frequency Band five Giga Hertz frequency band or both. So we can set up our device to be sending out on one of these different one of these frequencies or weaken. Set it out, said it to send up send out data on both of these frequencies.
04:50
So are in standard. If we're using a device that is 802.11 incompatible.
04:55
And we have our wireless access point that is incompatible. Set up to transmit on 2.4 and five Giga Hertz Frequency Band. Then it will be compatible with all of our other devices. RGB or a. One thing to keep in mind, however, is if we have saying an older laptop that is only using a toe to toe 11 a,
05:14
and we can try to connect it to ah wired wireless router that is a 22.11 in.
05:18
We're not going to get that 300 megabits per second max that we have with our in standard, our compatibility is going to be with our lowest common denominator, which is in this case are a standard with the 54 megabits per second.
05:31
So make sure that you don't say Oh, well, I have a kn older device that has one standard, but this newer device has a compatible is backwards compatible. So if I buy this newer device and set it up in my network, I'm gonna get that boost in speed will not necessarily both of your devices. Both of your points not only have to be compatible,
05:49
but if you want that boost in speed, they have to have the compatible speeds or else the newer devices going to tone down its speed
05:57
to match the older device to matter to be compatible.
06:00
So that being said, speaking on terms of compatibility, we have to make sure that not only are wireless access points compatible but also our network wireless network interface cards in our devices are compatible, so our laptop wireless network interface cards are different. Wireless bridges or wireless access points are wireless routers
06:19
in order for them to communicate with each other wirelessly
06:23
have tohave
06:25
compatible wireless standards. So are in is going to be compatible with all of our other standards.
06:30
R, B and G are going to be compatible with each other and in an A is only going to be compatible within and on. Lee if we have our five Giga Hertz frequency enabled on our end device.
06:43
So I mentioned about frequencies a couple of times. So what is a frequency?
06:47
Well, a frequency is a
06:49
when we're talking about a different frequencies are 2.4 gigahertz and our five gigahertz. What we're really talking about our frequency bands
06:58
now. Ah, Frequency Band is a is a certain wavelength segment that has been authorized for use by the government. Regular by government regulations for transmitting data or sending out information over airwaves
07:15
are two approved frequencies for our wireless WiFi devices are going to be 2.4 gigahertz Frequency band and our five Giga Hertz frequency band. And so this is going to our 2.4 gigahertz frequency band, and our five megahertz frequency band is going to include additional sub frequencies like 2.4
07:32
1 to 2.46
07:35
all the way to 2.49 because we can't cross over into 2.5
07:41
and then our five gigahertz will be 5.1 to 5.34 all the way to six. But not not including six.
07:50
So that's why we call him frequency bands.
07:53
A frequency is essentially a It's a new electromagnetic wave
07:59
that we can't see with our human eyes. But it is a physical electromagnetic wave that can be generated by our radio devices.
08:07
Now, our frequency is actually a measure of these wavelengths. Specifically. How many cycles How many wavelengths pass over a single point per second.
08:20
So when we're measuring a certain wave, we're measuring a certain electromagnetic frequency. We're measuring a certain radio frequency
08:28
we're measuring. If we have our radio frequency, here we have our electromagnetic wave
08:33
were measuring how many cycles pass over a certain point
08:39
in a certain time. So we have our radio antenna here that's receiving these radio waves. How many of these cycles past over our antenna per second.
08:50
Now,
08:52
when we're talking about radio, waves are different. Frequencies are going to be are going to be typically referred to in terms of gigahertz are 2.4 gigahertz and our five gigahertz are how we refer to our wavelengths for WiFi. Now
09:09
a Hertz is number of cycles is going to be the number of cycles per second.
09:15
Gigahertz is billions of cycles per second.
09:18
So are 2.4 gigahertz would mean that we have
09:22
2.4 billion cycles passing over one point per second,
09:28
and then our five gigahertz would be five billion cycles passing over electromagnetic cycles passing over one point per second.
09:39
So are 2.4 gigahertz is going to with its 2.4 billion cycles per second. It's going to the benefits it's going to give us are going to be. It's going to be range are 2.4 gigahertz. Band is going to give us a better range on one we're sending out a signal
10:00
are five gigahertz is going to give us less interference and Maur data when we're pushing out over our signal,
10:07
but it's going to have less of a range,
10:09
so let's investigate why these were the case
10:13
now. First off, the reason our 2.4 gigahertz frequency is going to have more interference is because more devices used are 2.4 gigahertz frequency band not just why wireless devices not just WiFi devices, but they are baby monitors.
10:28
Cordless phones, some micro waves that are sent out there are other. There are a lot of other devices that are commercially manufactured that aren't wireless devices that use the 2.4 gigahertz frequency band.
10:41
There's also less channel space on that 2.4 gigahertz frequency to use. So what's that? What's a Channel space? Well, a channel space is our additional
10:52
2.4 point 1237 Whatever it's our additional decimal points that we can use have how we're modifying that frequency
11:03
because we're already at 2.4, we have less additional channel space. We can only go to two point
11:09
for we can only go from 2.4 to 2.5, so we have less channel space. They're gonna beam or interference in that. In that one through prints of frequency band
11:16
are five gigahertz is number one less used by a lot, and number two is going to have more channel space because the 56 more channel space
11:28
some of those are reserved. But we'll talk about that later,
11:31
so it's going to have more 2.4 is gonna have Maur interference. So point for five gigahertz,
11:39
2.4 is all but 2.4 is going to have Maur range. Now, why is it going to have more range?
11:46
Well, we talked about how our 2.4 gigahertz is
11:50
2.4 billion cycles per second over certain point.
11:54
So that means our wavelengths, if we were to look at them,
12:00
would sort of look like this
12:03
on a very not even to scale, uh, drawing there,
12:09
so that would be our 2.4 gigahertz.
12:11
Now, our five gigahertz would be five billion cycles per second,
12:16
so it would be almost It would be just a little under double the number of cycles per second. So the blue line we have here is going to be a 2.4, and then our red line are five gigahertz would be like such
12:28
it be almost twice as many cycles per second.
12:31
No,
12:33
If we were to throw in, say, a certain object here,
12:37
our wave lengths are the lower our wave links, the easier it is for them to pass through objects.
12:43
So it's harder for our five year hurts wavelength are five Giga Hertz frequency to pass through an object, then are 2.4 gigahertz. Frequency would be so are 2.4 gigahertz frequency because of the longer wavelengths, because objects it's it's a little bit easier for it to go through objects in our five Giga Hertz frequency.
13:03
Then it's going to be able to go a little bit farther.
13:07
So point for 2.4 gigahertz, because it's easier for it to go bit farther.
13:13
And then we, lastly, goto our data. Our five giga Hertz frequency is going to be able to push out more data simultaneously,
13:20
essentially per radio. Little antenna tower. It has because
13:26
of the frequencies,
13:26
there's more cycles per second, so it's going to be able to push out Maur data per second in a single in a single frame are in a single single second. Essentially, then a stain or 2.4 gigahertz would be. That's why if we look back over to our standards are 802.11 a.
13:45
Even though it was implemented and developed before 8 to 9 11 B, we essentially dropped megabits per second from 54 megabits per second to 11 megabits per second. Because this five gigahertz frequent this five gigahertz standard attitude 11 A was able to carry more data per
14:03
per radio was able to push out more.
14:07
So, um, 0.45 gigahertz
14:11
Now, whether you're choosing a standard or whether you're choosing for your devices, toe want run on your 2.4 gigahertz or five megahertz frequency really just depends on what kind of environment you're in
14:22
if you aren't as worried about range or you're able to do channel bonding or you're able to set up additional wireless access points. So you aren't really worried as much about the distance that a single wireless access point is going
14:33
as well as maybe you're in an environment where there's a lot of additional interference. Maybe there's an apartment. You're in an apartment complex, and there's a lot of other wireless points around you, and you want to be able to push a fast connection. It doesn't really need to go far, and there's a lot of interference. Then you may want to look at the five gigahertz,
14:50
the five Giga Hertz frequency and set that for your devices and get a standard that is compatible with that 2.4 gigahertz if you need it to go a little bit farther. If you need a standard that is compatible with a lot more devices and a standard that is going to
15:07
be a lot more common, standard and less expensive standard because it is so much more common,
15:11
then you'd be looking at the 2.4 gigahertz frequency. So again it just depends on what your environments like and what your requirements are.
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